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Titrimetry refers to a set of analytical methods in which the concentration of a dissolved analyte is determined by its complete stoichiometric reaction with a standard Titrant. The quantity of standard Titrant utilized is used to calculate the unknown analyte concentration.


Titrimetry (Titrimetry)

Titrimetry refers to a set of analytical methods in which the concentration of a dissolved analyte is determined by its complete stoichiometric reaction with a known reagent called ‘Titrant’. The titration ends when all moles of the analyte have reacted with equivalent moles of Titrant. The end point can be visually observed by addition of an indicator that changes the color of the solution, or by Instrumental methods. The quantity of reagent consumed at the end point is measured and the equivalent moles of the analyte calculated by stoichiometry. This form of Titrimetry is categorized into Volumetric and Gravimetric types. Volumetric Titrimetry measures the Volume of reagent solution utilized, while Gravimetric Titrimetry measures the mass of reagent added till the end point.

Volumetric Titrimetry is divided into Acid-Base or Neutralization type, Precipitation type, Complex formation type and Redox type of Titrations. In Neutralization titrations, an acidic or basic Titrant neutralizes a basic or acidic analyte. In complexometric titration, the formation of a colored metal-ligand complex between a titrant (such as EDTA) and analyte (usually metal cation), with chemical indicators or Instrumentation used to detect the end point. In Redox titrations an oxidizing or reducing Titrant is used and chemical or instrumental (such as amperometry/potentiometry) methods used for endpoint detection. In Precipitation titrations, the Titrant and analyte form a precipitate, with the end point being detected by chemical indicators. Titrimetry by the above methods require suitable Primary or Secondary standard solutions of accurately known concentration for use as titrants. A special case of Titrimetry is Coulometric Titrimetry, in which the known Titrant is not added externally, but generated electrochemically in a titration cell. In this case, the applied current and its duration till end point are used to estimate the analyte concentration.

 Common Uses of Titrimetry

  • Water analysis
  • Wastewater analysis
  • Process control of electroplating
  • Fatty acid estimation in foods
  • Wine flavor testing
  • Pharmaceutical process and quality control

Advantages of Titrimetry

  • Economical and fast

Limitations of Titrimetry

  • Analyte needs to be soluble in a suitable solvent
  • Hydronium ion in aqueous solution interferes with some types of titrations

Industrial Applications of Titrimetry

  • Food and Beverage quality control
  • Manufacture of acid and bases
  • Paints and coatings
  • Electroplating
  • Textile industry
  • Water analysis
  • Wastewater analysis
  • Environmental pollution control
  • Corrosion control
  • Biomedical
  • Pharmaceutical

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