Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis Services
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a surface analysis method that is widely used to determine the surface characteristics of sub-micron sized particles. With the diminishing working scales of materials used in various industries like microelectronics, SEM has far-reaching applications like semiconductor inspections, microchip assembly, failure analysis, and quality control. Laboratory professionals at Infinita Lab guarantee the optimum application of the SEM technology for general and targeted testing of your products, providing the best performance, lower warranty costs, and high levels of customer satisfaction. ... Read More
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Scanning Electron Microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a surface analysis technique frequently used in material testing labs to identify surface features of sub-micron size particles. It is best suited for the analysis of surface fractures, surface contaminants, microstructures, spatial variations in chemical compositions, and crystalline structures. It uses a focused beam of electrons, which is reflected or knocked off the surface or near-surface of the sample to generate high-resolution images. With the working scales in materials getting smaller in industries like microelectronics, SEM has far-reaching applications like semiconductor inspections, microchip assembly, failure analysis, quality control, etc.
In the scanning electron microscope test, electron-sample interaction generates secondary electrons (SE), backscattered electrons (BSE), and characteristic X-rays. SE and BSE detectors are used to capture these interactions to visualize the samples’ morphological and topographical information in the laboratory. BSE images are also used for the rapid discrimination of the phases in multiphase samples. An Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) detector within SEM is used in the testing labs to detect the characteristic X-rays and provide qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the sample. Environmental SEM (ESEM) is another variant of the scanning electron microscope test available for analyzing the samples containing water or other volatile substances. 2D elemental mapping and 3D reconstruction of samples are available with FIB-SEM technology.
In order for SEM samples to resist the high vacuum conditions and the high intensity electron beam, they must be tiny enough to fit on the specimen stage and may need specific processing to improve their electrical conductivity and stability. Typically, a conductive adhesive is used to fix samples rigidly on a specimen holder or stub.
SEM is not a camera, and unlike a CCD array or film, the detector does not continuously create images. The resolution is not constrained by the diffraction limit, the fineness of lenses or mirrors, or the detector array resolution, as it is in an optical system. The SE detector is fist-sized and only senses electricity; the focusing optics may be large and coarse.
In contrast to SPMs, SEMs do not inherently produce 3D pictures. However, by combining SEM with the below methods, 3D data can be obtained:
3D SEM reconstruction from a stereo pair
Photometric 3D SEM reconstruction from a four-quadrant detector by “shape from shading”
Photometric 3D rendering from a single SEM image
Inverse reconstruction using electron-material interactive models
Multi-Resolution reconstruction using single 2D File:
Ion-abrasion SEM (IA-SEM)
Video 01: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Common Uses
There is a large variety of scanning electron microscope tests available for our clients based in the USA. All the tests are done in the best-equipped testing laboratory for utmost client satisfaction.
Identification of cracks, imperfections, and contaminants on the surface of coated products
Assessment of nanoparticles in coatings and paints
Structural analysis of new species of microscopic organisms like bacteria and viruses
Analysis of particle size and shape in the cosmetic formulations
Failure analysis of integrated circuit boards
Analysis of gunshot residue for forensic investigation
Testing new vaccinations and medicines
Topographical analysis of the semiconductor wafers
Advantages of SEM Tests
Simple sample preparation as the sample does not need to be thin
Data acquisition is rapid and in the digital form
High resolution (up to 15 nanometers) and three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained
Easy to operate with user-friendly interfaces
Limitations of SEM Tests
The sample should be solid and must fit into the microscope chamber
Electrically insulating samples need the application of an electrically conductive coating, which may result in artifacts
EDS detector on SEM can not detect very light elements (H, He, and Li), and many instruments are unable to detect elements with atomic numbers less than 11
SEM must be placed in an area that is free of any possible magnetic, electric, or vibration interference
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy – SIMS
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Optical Profilometry Testing Optical Profilometry (OP) or White Light Interferometry (WLI) is an interferometric-based non-contact technology for the measurement of surface topography. It is used to measure surface roughness, coating...
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy – XRF
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Select Other Metrology Testing Services From Catalogue
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for identifying surface flaws, fractures, and contaminants, at the microscale, by producing high-resolution images of a sample’s surface. It is also used for determining the elemental composition of a sample’s surface.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis includes surface and near-surface topography and Z-contrast imaging. Further investigative studies include 2D or 3D imaging, and elemental mapping using FIB-SEM (Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope) technology and EDS (energy-dispersive) detector.
ASTM E572 test method covers the analysis of stainless and alloy steels by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF). It provides rapid, multi-element determinations with sufficient accuracy to assure product quality.
The ASTM D2674 test is a standard test method for the analysis of sulfochromate etch solutions used in the surface preparation of aluminum. The ASTM D2674 standard specifies a method for determining the efficacy of an etchant used to prepare the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding.
An immunological method for quantization of Hevea Natural Rubber (HNRL) proteins using rabbit anti-HNRL serum. Rabbits immunized with HNRL proteins react to the majority of the proteins present, and their sera have the capability to detect most if not all the proteins in HNRL.
ASTM G65 measures the resistance of metallic materials to abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus. The quality, durability, and toughness of the sample are determined using this test. Metallic materials are ranked in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment.
ASTM E2141 test methods provide accelerated aging and monitoring of the performance of time-dependent electrochromic devices (ECD) integrated in insulating glass units (IGU). This test helps to understand the relative serviceability of electrochromic glazings applied on ECD.
ASTM C724 test method is used in analyzing the quality and ease of maintenance of a ceramic decoration on architectural-type glass. This test method is useful in the acknowledgment of technical standards.
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Process for testing
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You ship your sample to us or arrange for us to pick it up.
We deliver the test report to your email.
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