ASTM E10 Test for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials

ASTM E10 is used to determine the Brinell hardness of metals by the Brinell indentation hardness principle. In this test, an indenter forces a load on the specimen for a specified time. The load is removed, and the resulting indentation's diameter is measured to calculate the Brinell hardness number.

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    The ASTM E10 test method measures the hardness of metals in terms of their ability to withstand a load without forming a dent. This test is used to calculate the Brinell hardness number, which correlates to tensile strength, wear resistance, ductility, or other physical characteristics of metals. The information gathered from this test can be used in quality control and for the selection of materials.

    Brinell hardness tests are extensively used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments. Brinell hardness testing at a specific location does not represent the physical characteristics of the whole product. 

    Test Procedure:

    In ASTM E10, the Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hardened steel or carbide ball of known diameter under a known load into a surface and measuring the diameter of the indentation with a microscope. The Brinell hardness number is obtained by dividing the load, in kilograms, by the spherical area of the indentation in square millimeters; this area is a function of the ball diameter and the depth of the indentation.

    Video 01: Brinell hardness test

    Specimen size:

    For ASTM E10, there is no standard shape or size for a Brinell test specimen, but the test specimen should conform to the following: The specimen should be thick enough that no bulge appears on the part of the specimen opposite the indentation when the load is applied. The thickness of the specimen should be at least ten times the depth of the indentation. The minimum width should conform to the requirements for indentation spacing. 


    Brinell hardness number calculation for ASTM E10: 

    BHN = Brinell hardness number

    P = applied load 

    D = diameter of the indenter ball in mm, and 

    d = measured mean diameter of the indentation in mm


    The ASTM E10 test method measures the hardness of metals in terms of their ability to withstand a load without forming a dent.


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