Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Pyro-GC-MS) utilizes controlled thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) to break-up large molecules into smaller fragments that can be separated and analyzed in a coupled Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). ... Read More
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Raman Spectrometry (Raman)
Raman Spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that uses the wavelength shift of light scattered (Raman shift) from molecules in a sample, to characterize them. When light of known wavelength is inelastically scattered by matter, the wavelength shift (or frequency shift) of the scattered photons is different from the incident photons. The shift is related to the molecular vibrations, which are unique to each molecular structure. The change in frequency of scattered photons may be positive or negative. Raman spectroscopy involves detecting and recording these wavelength shifts and using them to analyze what is in the sample. A Raman spectrum will have several peaks, each peak corresponding to a specific mode of molecular vibration of a chemical species. The position of the peaks is used for species identification, while its intensity indicates species concentration. Several variations of the basic technique exist, such as Resonance Raman, Spontaneous Raman, Fourier Transform Raman, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent Raman techniques, such as hyper Raman spectroscopy. The types of materials to which Raman Spectroscopy can be applied is wide ranging, including dissolved organic and inorganic molecules, crystalline solids, ceramics, glasses, nanostructure materials and microorganisms. In the case of gases, the concentration of molecules in a gas is typically very low, so special measurement techniques to enhance the signals are needed.
Common Uses of Raman Spectrometry (Raman)
Water pollution monitoring
Coal and derivatives analysis
Characterization of 2D materials like Graphene
Characterization of crystal structures
Biochemical studies at cellular level
Medical research such as study of transdermal delivery of drugs into skin
Advantages of Raman Spectrometry (Raman)
Small sample quantity with minimal preparation
Applicable for wide range of organic and inorganic materials
Limitations of Raman Spectrometry (Raman)
Many compounds are not suitable for Raman spectrometry due to molecular asymmetry or fluorescent effects
Cannot be used for metals and alloys
Industrial Applications of Raman Spectrometry (Raman)
ASTM E572 test method covers the analysis of stainless and alloy steels by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF). It provides rapid, multi-element determinations with sufficient accuracy to assure product quality.
The ASTM D2674 test is a standard test method for the analysis of sulfochromate etch solutions used in the surface preparation of aluminum. The ASTM D2674 standard specifies a method for determining the efficacy of an etchant used to prepare the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding.
An immunological method for quantization of Hevea Natural Rubber (HNRL) proteins using rabbit anti-HNRL serum. Rabbits immunized with HNRL proteins react to the majority of the proteins present, and their sera have the capability to detect most if not all the proteins in HNRL.
ASTM G65 measures the resistance of metallic materials to abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus. The quality, durability, and toughness of the sample are determined using this test. Metallic materials are ranked in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment.
ASTM E2141 test methods provide accelerated aging and monitoring of the performance of time-dependent electrochromic devices (ECD) integrated in insulating glass units (IGU). This test helps to understand the relative serviceability of electrochromic glazings applied on ECD.
ASTM C724 test method is used in analyzing the quality and ease of maintenance of a ceramic decoration on architectural-type glass. This test method is useful in the acknowledgment of technical standards.
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