Abrasion Test Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus ASTM G65

Abrasion Test Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus ASTM G65

ASTM G65 measures the resistance of metallic materials to abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus. The quality, durability, and toughness of the sample are determined using this test. Metallic materials are ranked in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment.


    Abrasion test ASTM G65 is used for determining the resistance of metallic materials to scratching abrasion with the help of the dry sand/rubber wheel test. This test is useful in determining the quality, durability, and toughness of the sample subjected to abrasion. ASTM G65 test method provides five recommended methods suitable for specific degrees of thickness or wear resistance of the test material (Procedure A to E). ASTM G65 is used for ranking materials in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment. 

    Test Procedure:

    A standard test sample is abraded with a grit of controlled size and composition. Then, the abrasive is brought between the test sample and a rotating wheel by means of chlorobutyl rubber rim or tire of hardness specified by ASTM G65. The test sample is forced against the rotating wheel at a stated force with a lever arm. On the other hand, the test surface is abraded by a controlled flow of grit. The wheel rotates in such a way that its contact face proceeds in the direction of sand flow. The force applied by the lever arm and the test period is varied as noted in Procedure A through E. Then, the samples are weighed before and after the test and the loss in mass is recorded. Due to the differences in density of materials, it is required to convert mass loss to volume loss in cubic millimeters. 

    Sample size:

    The typical sample is rectangular in shape 25×76 mm (1.0×3.0 inches) and between 3.2-12.7 mm (0.12-0.50 inches) thick. The surface of the test should be flat within the range of 0.125 mm (0.005 inches).


    Abrasion test results are reported as volume loss in cubic millimeters for the particular test procedure specified. 

    Volume loss= mass loss (g)/density (g/cm3)x1000

    The amount of scratching abrasion produced in a given operation will reduce as the rubber wheel decreases in diameter. So, the actual volume loss developed by these slightly smaller wheels will be inaccurate. 

     The adjusted volume loss (AVL) is calculated as follows: 

    AVL =measure volume loss x 228.6 mm (9.0 inches)/wheel diameter after use


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