Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) is based on the principle of size exclusion, in which components flowing in solutio n through a chromatographic column are separated based on molecular size. It determines molecular weights and the distribution of natural and synthetic polymers. This test is offered by Infinita Lab, USA, through its vast laboratory network.... Read More
Average 30% Cost Savings
100% Confidentiality Guarantee
Free, No-obligation Consultation
100% Customer Satisfaction
TRUSTED BY ENGINEERS FROM
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) is a type of high-performance liquid chromatography. GPC is also referred to as Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and is based on the principle of size exclusion, in which components flowing in solution through a chromatographic column, are separated based on molecular size. The GPC column is packed with semi-permeable, porous polymer gel beads, or with insoluble inorganic porous particles, such as spherical silica. Stagnant liquid present in the pores of beads forms the ‘stationary phase’, while the analyte, dissolved in a suitable solvent, flows through the column as the ‘mobile phase’. A wide range of non-polar organic to aqueous solvents can be used. The mobile phase can flow between the beads and also diffuse into and out of the pores in the beads. Smaller molecules in the mobile phase enter the pores of the gel easily, whereas larger molecules are excluded. The smaller molecules are therefore retained in the column for a longer duration than larger molecules. The molecules exiting the column are detected and characterized using one or more detectors. The elution behavior of the sample is displayed in a chromatogram, showing quantity detected as a function of time. The highest molecular weight components are detected first, followed by successively lower molecular weight components.
Various types of detectors can be used, such as differential refractive index (DRI), UV, evaporative light scattering (ELS), static light scattering detectors, and viscometers. The other components of the GPC instrument include a pump to push the solvent through the instrument, an injection port to introduce the test sample onto the column and control panel hardware and software. GPC is usually carried out at room temperature, but some instruments have thermostatically controlled heating ovens in which the columns and detectors are placed. Higher temperatures are needed for higher viscosity solvents or to dissolve the components.
The GPC analysis procedure involves several steps, including polymer gel bead selection, sample preparation, column packing, gel swelling, washing with buffer solution, analyte preparation, and then running the column to detect the eluted components.
GPC is primarily used for the characterization of synthetic or natural macro-molecules and the separation of their mixtures into fractions such as polymer, oligomer, monomers, and additives. Since separation is based on molecular size, GPC gives information on the size of polymer molecules in solution, which can be converted into molecular weights using calibration with standard polymers of known molecular weight. GPC can provide the molecular weight distribution of polymers. Applications include analysis of synthetic polymers, oligomers, proteins, enzymes, polysaccharides, lignin, and other biomolecules.
Common Uses of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
Molecular weight determination of synthetic and natural macro-molecules
Molecular weight distribution determination
Separation of polymers or other macromolecules on the basis of their size.
Advantages of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
Wide range of solvents and column packings available
Less quantity of sample required.
Limitations of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
Only a limited number of peaks can be resolved within the short time scale of the GPC run.
Pre-filtration of samples is needed to prevent damage to columns and detectors.
Industrial Applications of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
Research and development
Purification of enzymes, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, and other biological macromolecules
ASTM E572 test method covers the analysis of stainless and alloy steels by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF). It provides rapid, multi-element determinations with sufficient accuracy to assure product quality.
The ASTM D2674 is a standard test method for the analysis of sulfochromate etches solution used in the surface preparation of aluminum. The ASTM D2674 standard specifies a method for determining the efficacy of an etchant used to prepare the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding.
An immunological method for quantization of Hevea Natural Rubber (HNRL) proteins using rabbit anti-HNRL serum. Rabbits immunized with HNRL proteins react to the majority of the proteins present, and their sera have the capability to detect most if not all the proteins in HNRL.
ASTM G65 measures the resistance of metallic materials to abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus. The quality, durability, and toughness of the sample are determined using this test. Metallic materials are ranked in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment.
ASTM E2141 test methods provide accelerated aging and monitoring of the performance of time-dependent electrochromic devices (ECD) integrated in insulating glass units (IGU). This test helps to understand the relative serviceability of electrochromic glazings applied on ECD.
ASTM C724 test method is used in analyzing the quality and ease of maintenance of a ceramic decoration on architectural-type glass. This test method is useful in the acknowledgment of technical standards.
Send us a request
Process for testing
You share material and testing requirements with us
We ensure your sample pick-up in an ensured manner
We deliver test report to your inbox
Just share your testing requirements and leave the rest on us!