ASTM B311 is used for determining the density of powder metallurgy (PM) materials having less than two percent porosity and cemented carbides. This test method works on Archimedes’ principle. ASTM B311 is not applicable for materials with unsealed surface porosity that may absorb water making the observed density values higher than the real value.
For ASTM B311, the test sample is first weighed in air and then in water using an analytical balance. Finally, the density is calculated using Archimedes’ principle.
The test samples are used as specified by ASTM B311.
The density is calculated as follows:
Density (D) = Mass /Volume = D = (AE)/(A-B+C)=(AE)/(A-F)
D = density of the test sample, g/cm3,
A = mass of the test sample in air, g,
B = apparent mass of the test sample and sample support in the water in,g
C = mass of sample support immersed in water in, g
F = mass of test sample in water with a mass of the sample support tared, (g), and
E = density of water in g/cm3