Dynamic Mechanical Analysis ASTM D4065, D4440, D5279

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is done to determine elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and damping coefficient by usin g ASTM D4065, D4440, D5279 test methods. DMA outlines transition areas in plastics, such as the glass transition and may be used for quality assessment checks or product development.... Read More

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    Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) determines elastic modulus (or storage modulus, G’), viscous modulus (or loss modulus, G”), and damping coefficient (Tan D) as a function of temperature, frequency, or time. The results are usually determined graphically with G’, G”, and Tan D versus temperature. DMA outlines transition areas in plastics, such as the glass transition. It may be used for quality assessment checks or product development. DMA can identify small transition areas that are afar the resolution of DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).

    Test Procedure:

    The test sample is mounted between the stationary and dynamic fixtures of a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Then it is enclosed in a thermal chamber and provided with appropriate inputs, e.g., amplitude, frequency, and a temperature range. While slowly moving through a defined temperature range, torsional oscillation is applied to the sample by the analyzer.

    Various techniques for determination of Tg by DMA:

    The highest point on the Tan Delta curve

    Highest-point on Loss Modulus curve

    Storage Modulus curve (half-height)

    When reporting Tg by DMA, it is important to indicate how the Tg was figured because the difference between the various techniques can fluctuate as much as 25 °C. As a result, Tg provided by DMA is often about 10 degrees higher than DSC Tg.

    Specimen size:

    Test samples are usually 56 × 13 × 3 mm in size, either incised from the center section of an ASTM tensile bar (Type 1) or an ISO multipurpose test sample.


    Elastic Modulus (G’) vs (1) Temperature (2) frequency (3) strain

    Viscous Modulus (G”) vs (1) Temperature (2) frequency (3) strain

    Damping Coefficient (Tan D) vs (1) Temperature (2) frequency (3) strain 

    Key Properties from G G:

    Tan Delta:

    From the elastic modulus, we can calculate the Tan Delta, defined as the ratio of G” to G’. Tan D indicates the relative grade of damping of the material. This scale measures how efficiently a substance loses energy to molecular (or atomic) rearrangements and the built-in friction.

    Complex Modulus:

    In Torsional Mode, Complex Shear Modulus (G*) is defined as the complex reaction of a material sample when stress or strain is applied. The vector sum of storage, G’ and loss, G” gives the shear modulus.


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