Determination of Specific Gravity of Isocyanates ASTM D4659-19

Determination of Specific Gravity of Isocyanates ASTM D4659-19

ASTM D4659-19 test method provides details about toluene diisocyanate, polymeric methyl phenyl isocyanate, and liquid methylene diphenyl isocyanate by determining their specific gravity through hydrometer and pycnometer, respectively. This test method can be applied to calculate the specific gravity of many other liquids as well. The final results are expressed in SI Units.

    Scope:

    The ASTM D4659-19 test method is important to determine the specific gravity of Isocyanates. It defines a standard to control the quality and application of these Isocyanates. It characterizes the Isocyanates found in polyurethane products and is applicable for research purposes. It uses a digital density meter to calculate the specific gravity of Isocyanates and many other liquids, which specify their reliability and help finalize their application.  

    Procedure:

    The apparatus consists of a pycnometer, thermometer, water bath, and analytical balance. The pycnometer is cleaned with chromic acid cleaning solution and then washed with distilled water. Distilled water and the sample is poured in separate trials into the pycnometer and the placed in a bath. The thermometer is inserted into the pycnometer, and it is kept in the bath until it reaches equilibrium. The weight of the pycnometer is measured after its removal from the bath and is compared with the weight of the empty pycnometer. The weight of the sample is obtained by subtracting the weight of the empty pycnometer from the weight when it had a sample in it. While using a hydrometer, the before and after readings are compared to calculate specific gravity.  

    Specimen size:

    The specimen is taken in liquid form in a hydrometer cylinder of 25.4 mm diameter. For a pycnometer, the quantity of the sample is kept under 25 or 50mL.

    Data:

    The specific gravity at 25/25°C can be calculated with the help of a pycnometer as follows:
    Specific gravity, 25/25°C ꞊ S/W
    Where: S = sample used, g and
    W = water in the pycnometer, g.

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