All elastomeric materials are tested for their ability to withstand tensile forces for necessary performance. ASTM D412 is used for testing the Tensile Strength of Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers and identifying high-performing material in end-use temperature and pressure conditions.
ASTM D412 is a standard test method for determining the tensile properties of thermoplastic elastomers and thermoset rubber. A wide variety of products and consumer goods is manufactured from this family, such as tires, vehicle components, pitch game balls, and rubber bands. Tensile properties are dependent upon the material under stress, and the conditions under which the test is ongoing such as specimen geometry, pretest conditioning, extension rate, temperature, and humidity. This is a significant reason why materials should always be compared under similar conditions. Space shuttle O-rings, which must critically perform under ultimate temperature and pressure conditions, are also a specialized product of this family.
ASTM D412 tests the elasticity of a material while undergoing tensile strain and records its behavior after the stress is released. ASTM D412 is carried out on a universal testing machine (tensile testing device) while maintaining a 500 ± 50 mm/min speed until the specimen undergoes failure. For maintaining the appropriateness of the test, specimens are held at 90 degrees to the jaw faces and any tilt is avoided. Misalignment of specimens may cause major variations in test result charts. Therefore, consistent alignment is ensured for each test. There are two test methods: Test method A – Dumbbell and straight section specimens and Test Method B – Cut ring specimens. Identical results may not be produced with the same specimen with these methods.
ASTM D412 standard outlines six permissible brackets of dogbone samples for ASTM D412 testing and two permissible brackets of cut ring samples. A typical test shape is a die-cut C dogbone sample, which requires an overall length of 115 mm (gauge length 25 mm), a circumference of 6 mm, and a thickness of 3 mm. The median value being the accepted value, the thickness of the sample is measured three times.
Tensile strength Tensile stress at a given elongation Ultimate elongation Tensile set The values stated in SI or non-SI units shall be observed separately as inflexible for this standard