Bulk density is defined as the mass of the many particles of the material divided by the total volume they occupy. The tapped density is an increased bulk density attained after mechanically tapping a container containing the powder sample. Determination of Tapped Densities is a method to determine the bulk densities of powdered materials, usually drugs.
Bulk Density Introduction:
Bulk density is defined as the mass of the many particles of the material divided by the total volume they occupy. Bulk density is not an intrinsic property of a material; it can change depending on how the material is handled. Determination of Tapped Densities is a method to determine the bulk densities of powdered drugs under tapped packing conditions. Tapped packing is defined as the state obtained when the vessel containing the powder sample is to be repeatedly dropped at a specified distance at a constant drop rate until the apparent volume of sample in the vessel becomes almost constant.
How it works:
Tapped bulk density is achieved by mechanically tapping a measuring cylinder containing a powder. After observing the initial volume, the cylinder is mechanically tapped, and volume readings are taken until little further volume change is observed (Figure 1).
Strength of tap density analysis:
Limitations of tap density analysis:
Tap Density Analysis is sensitive to human errors.
Uses of tap density analysis:
Tapped bulk density test is used to determine the required volume of small containers carrying a fixed mass of powder that has been compacted. The results of this test are primarily applicable to containers with volumes up to about one cubic meter.
The tap density data is given in the following equation
TD = Weight of the sample/Volume of the sample in the cylinder after tapping
Sample requirements:Samples can be powders, granules, or other “divided” solids. In general, the samples should be tested in the as-received condition. In certain instances, the powder may be dried. However, if the powder is susceptible to oxidation, the powder is dried in a vacuum or inert gas. Powders containing volatile substances are not dried at all.
Enter Sample and testing requirementsProvide your contact information
How Spectral Ellipsometry (SE) works: Figure 1: Plarization of a light beam after passing through a polarizer Light waves can...
Perovskite solar cells Like other thin-film technologies, perovskite solar cells have unique properties that make them attractive for reasons beyond...
3D printed OLED Display Researchers successfully 3D printed a flexible OLED display. This could allow anyone to mass-produce low-cost OLED...
EELS analysis of gate and channel is performed on fin field-effect transistors (finFETs). Scanning transmission electron…
FTIR analysis is used to study the migration and leaching of phthalate plasticizers from p-PVCs. Phthalate…
Nano-scale surface roughness is a critical parameter in fabricated thin-films that are used in optics, solar…
ASTM E572 test method covers the analysis of stainless and alloy steels by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF). It provides rapid, multi-element determinations with sufficient accuracy to assure product quality.
The ASTM D2674 test is a standard test method for the analysis of sulfochromate etch solutions used in the surface preparation of aluminum. The ASTM D2674 standard specifies a method for determining the efficacy of an etchant used to prepare the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding.
An immunological method for quantization of Hevea Natural Rubber (HNRL) proteins using rabbit anti-HNRL serum. Rabbits immunized with HNRL proteins react to the majority of the proteins present, and their sera have the capability to detect most if not all the proteins in HNRL.
ASTM G65 measures the resistance of metallic materials to abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus. The quality, durability, and toughness of the sample are determined using this test. Metallic materials are ranked in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a controlled environment.
ASTM E2141 test methods provide accelerated aging and monitoring of the performance of time-dependent electrochromic devices (ECD) integrated in insulating glass units (IGU). This test helps to understand the relative serviceability of electrochromic glazings applied on ECD.
ASTM C724 test method is used in analyzing the quality and ease of maintenance of a ceramic decoration on architectural-type glass. This test method is useful in the acknowledgment of technical standards.
What Material or product do you have?
What analysis do you need?
How many parts or coupons do you have?
How fast do you need the results back?
Do you know the goal of the analysis you need?