ASTM E81-96 Test Method for Preparing Quantitative Pole Figures
In ASTM E81-96, X-ray diffraction is the important non-destructive tool to study all types of matter ranging from fluids to powders and crystals. X-ray diffraction methods are used for the identification of crystalline phases of different materials and the quantitative phase analysis. X-ray diffraction methods are better in understanding the three-dimensional atomic structure of crystalline solids. Data for constructing pole figures are obtained with an X-ray diffractometer, using reflection and transmission techniques. Data for constructing pole figures are obtained with an X-ray diffractometer, using reflection and transmission techniques.
ASTM E81-96 test method covers the use of the X-ray diffractometer to prepare quantitative pole figures. The test method consists of several experimental procedures. Some of the procedures permit the preparation of a complete pole figure. Others must be used in combination to produce a complete pole figure.
The ASTM E81-96 test method consists of characterizing the distribution of orientations of selected lattice planes with respect to sample-fixed coordinates. The distribution will usually be obtained by measurement of the intensity of X-rays diffracted by the sample. In such measurements, the detector and associated limiting slits are fixed at twice the appropriate Bragg angle, and the diffracted intensity is recorded as the orientation of the sample is changed. After the measured data have been corrected, as necessary, for background, defocusing, and absorption, and normalized to have an average value of unity, the results may be plotted in stereographic or equal-area projection.
Ordinarily test specimens are obtained from thicker sections by reducing them mechanically so far as possible and Then etching to final thickness. The sample must not be overheated or plastically deformed during the thinning process.
Iron sample with molybdenum K-alpha radiation, the linear absorption coefficient is 303 cm−1, and optimum specimen thickness for transmission is approximately 0.03 mm (0.001 in.). It is extremely difficult to prepare specimens this thin, and in practice iron specimens 0.05 to 0.1 mm (0.002 to 0.004 in.) are normally used in transmission with molybdenum K-alpha radiation.
ASTM E572 test method covers the analysis of stainless and alloy steels by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF). It provides rapid, multi-element determinations with sufficient accuracy to assure product quality.
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